1043 - 1099 (56 years)
Set As Default Person
||Rodrigo Diaz El Cid Campeador De Bivar, el Cid  |
||el Cid |
||Bivar, Castile, Spain
||Roderigo De Dias Bivar |
||Rodrigo Diaz De Vivar El Cid |
||Ruy Diaz |
||Ruy Diaz |
||10 Jul 1099
||27 Sep 2013 |
||Diego Lainez Castro De Vivar , b. Abt 1011, Bivar, Castile, Spain , d. 1058 (Age ~ 47 years) |
||Teresa Nunez De Amaya , b. Abt 1019, Bivar, Castile, Spain , d. Yes, date unknown |
||Bivar, Castile, Spain 
||Jimena Diaz De Asturias , b. 1054, Bivar, Castile, Spain , d. 1103 (Age 49 years) |
||Bivar, Castile, Spain 
|+||1. Dona Cristina Elvira Jimena Rodriguez De Bivar , b. 1077, Bivar, Castile, Spain , d. 1116 (Age 39 years)|
| ||2. Maria Sol Rodriguez De Bivar , b. Abt 1075, Bivar, Castile, Spain , d. Abt 1106 (Age ~ 31 years)|
||17 Aug 2010 |
- Simpson, Lesley Byrd, translator, The Poem of The Cid. University of California Press:Berkeley 1957
Ramon Menendez Pidal, Cantar de Mio Cid: Texto, Gramatica, y Vocabulario. 3 vols. Madrid, 1908-1911.
Rodrigo Diaz (de Vivar), male line descendant (it would seem) of Judges Lain Calvo and Nuno Rasura, tracing back to a 9th century Nuno Belchidez. In this descent, he was linked (in the male line) with to some of the early (non-hereditary) Counts of Castile, the Banu Gomez, the Banu Morel, and the Flainez/de Cifuentes families, and (in the female line) to the later (hereditary) Counts of Castile. He married Jimena Diaz, a descendant of the 10th century count Piniolo Gundemariz.
Battles of Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar "el Cid"
Rodrigo serving the king of Castile
Battle of Graus (1063).
At this battle, the Moslem king of Zaragoza, Al-Muktadir, defeated the king of Aragon, Ramiro I, who died at the battle (actually, some sources affirm a murderer was sent to kill him during the battle). The King of Castile, Fernando, sent his son Sancho (future Sancho II "the strong") to help his protected Al-Muktadir. Rodrigo Díaz had probably 20 years old at that time, and took part as member of Sancho's troop.
Llantada (19th July 1068) and Golpejera (1072). Sancho II of Castile defeats his brother, Alfonso VI of Leon. Rodrigo commanded the Castilian army in both battles.
Antecedents. Castile and Leon were united under king Fernando I "the Great" (1029-1065). Nevertheless, the Leonese noblemen didn't want to be under the governement of a Castilian king (Castile had been a frontier county of León, until very recently), so he decided to divide his kingdoms. At his dead, the first son (Sancho) heired the kingdom of Castile, While the second one (Alfonso) heired León. Theoretically, that was the logic decission, following the Navarrese Sucession Law (Fernando was son of Sancho the Elder of Navarre): the first son received the fatherly inheritance, and the posessions acquired by himself were reparted between the other sons & daughters. But León, as heir of the ancient Hispanic-Gothic kingdom could claim for its supremacy over the other Iberian countries, so Sancho thought he should have heired it, and looked for the confrontation with his brothers.
Llantada is the result of a challenge between both kings who served mainly to increase Rodrigo's prestige (it is in this time, when he started to be called "El Campeador") ... and to make him win some ennemies in the Leonese Court, and even in the Castilian one (as a member of the Low Nobility, he was seen as a parvenu by the High noblemen). The battle of Golpejera is more controversial: depending on the sources (Castilian or Leonese) the battle is different. The fact is that Alfonso is captured by his brother Sancho, who is crowned as king of León, while Alfonso is exiled at the court of the Moslem king of Toledo <../etoledo.html>, Al-Mamún. Nevertheless, Sancho was murdered after a while (by Vellido Dolfos), when he tried to conquer his sister Urraca's posession of Zamora (under the governement of his sister Urraca). Alfonso returned then to claim both kingdoms of Castile and León. The Castilian noblemen, leaded by Rodrigo Díaz, compeled Alfonso to swear he wasn't involved with the murder of his brother, before accept him, but it seems, after his oath, Rodrigo was one of the main supporters of Alfonso.
Rodrigo served the new king, during some years: sent as ambassador to Seville to collect the annual tax, he was involved in a conflict between Seville & Granada, fighintg against this last one in the battle of Cabra (1079): the king Abd Allah of Granada was helped by the Castilian García Ordóñez, so Rodrigo won a new ennemy in the Castilian Court. Rodrigo started then to lose the Royal favour. After leading a punishment expedition against Toledo (which was under the protection of Alfonso) he is finally exiled, and entered in the service of the son of Al-Muktadir, Abú Amin (who reined very soon, under the name of Al-Mutamin billah, "the one who trust in God").
Rodrigo serving the king of Zaragoza
Al-Mutamin had to front several threats, first, his brother Al-Mundir (king of Lérida, Denia & Tortosa) claimed Zaragoza, at the same time, the king of Aragon & Navarra, Sancho Ramírez, the twin Counts of Barcelone, Ramón Berenguer & Berenguer Ramón, and the king of Valencia, Abú Bakr tried to expand their possesions taking the ones of Al-Mutamin, so it seems Rodrigo couldn't rest too much. We can see that, at this time there was a certain tolerance between Christian and Moslems, only broken by foreign interventions (North-African invaders or French crusaders): the alliances between Christians and Moslems were not strange.
First, he went to release the city of Calatayud, besieged by the king Abu Bakr of Valencia, captures the castle of Alcocer and wait almost four months until he provokes Abu Bakr into an attack which ended with the latter's defeat (1081).
Later, he had to help the city of Almenar (1082), who was besieged by Aragonese & Catalans: in a surprising attack, he released the city, and captured by the first time, the count of Barcelona, Berenguer Ramón. He received as a ransom, the sword of Berenguer, the famous Tizona.
Finally, he build a castle in Olocau, to threat Al-Mundir, this one claim for the help of the king of Aragón, but both of them were defeated by Rodrigo, on 14-8-1084.
Rodrigo as an independent power
In the meanwhile, there had been a reconciliation between Rodrigo & Alfonso VI. Rodrigo still served Al-Mutamin until his death, but a short time later, he returned to Castile (1085), where his help was needed against the new North-African invaders: the Almoravids. Rodrigo was, then, sent by Alfonso to Valencia, where he served his king by a while. Nevertheless, he was again exiled in a short time. Now he started to act as an independent power, looking for his own state in Eastern Spain.
Tébar (May 1090). The first threat against Rodrigo's plans was, again, the count of Barcelona, Berenguer Ramón II, who, in the meanwhile, had murdered his brother. Berenguer, now as single Count, had his own ambitions in the same area, and prepared a hugh army to defeat Rodrigo. El Cid refugeed in the forest of Tébar, near Teruel, and managed to divide Catalan army, who was humiliatingly defeated. A short time later, there was a reconciliation between Rodrigo & Berengeur, this last one renouncing his ambitions in the area.
Alcaraz (1091). Rodrigo looked for an alliance with the new king of Aragon, Pedro I, and helped him in the battle of Alcaraz, where they defeated Al-Mustain, and conquered the city of Huesca. Castilian counts García Ordóñez (the old enemy of Rodrigo) and Gonzalo Núñez fought as mercenaries of the king of Zaragoza.
After a short time serving Alfonso, Rodrigo returned to Eastern Spain where the king Al-Qádir of Valencia had been deposed by a rebellion. The new sovereign, Ibn Yahhaf, had claimed for Almoravid help. Rodrigo Díaz sieged the city and took it on (15-6-1094), after almost 2 years of siege, creating his own mixed (Moslem-Christian) state. He started to be known as "El Cid" (an Arab word meaning "the lord" or "the boss"). Nevertheless, he had immediatly to start his defence works against the Almoravid threath.
Rodrigo against Almoravids
Almoravid empire stretched from Ghana (in the African gulf of Guinea) to Spain. A major figure in the empire's history is Yusuf ibn Tashfin, who conquered Morocco and founded the city of Marrakesh in 1062. In fact, there were really two Almoravid empires; one founded by Abu Bakr in the Sahara and Sahel, and the other by Yusuf in the north. Alarmed by the conquests of Alfonso VI, and the new politics of religious intolerance, coming with French monks, the kings of Seville (Al-Mutamid) and Badajoz (Al-Mutawakkil) asked for help to Yusuf: he entered to Spain and defeated the Castilian-Leonese armies at the battle of Sagrajas/Zalaca (23th october 1086). Almoravids introduced a new warfare way in Spain, with a more developped organization, and the use of battle drums to transmit orders during the battles. Nevertheless, the opposition of Moslem countries of Spain (who started to consider him more dangerous than Alfonso) and the dead of his son (that made him to return to Africa) prevented him to take profit of his victory. Later, the Almoravids returned to Spain, starting the conquest of the Moslem kingdoms, before attacking Christian ones. A Castilian army, leaded by Alvar Fáñez, went to help the Moslem states, but was defeated at Almodóvar del Río (1091). Later, they tried to recover the cities of Toledo and Valencia, the nephew of Yusuf, Muhammad, being sent to the second one.
Cuarte (14-10-1094), also known as Poblet. A hugh Almoravid army, attacked the state of Valencia. The army of Rodrigo (much more tiny than the Almoravid one) goes out from the city and defeat Muhammad, who didn't hope Rodrigo to attack the first: that was the first time that Almoravids (considered until this moment as invincible) were defeated.
Bairén (1097). 1097 was almost a disastrous year for Christians. The almoravids (Muhammad ben AlHach) attack again Christian Spain, and defeat in Consuegra. (August 15th) the Castilian-Leonese armies of Alfonso VI, dying in the battle the son of El Cid, Diego Rodríguez. A few days later, a new Castilian army, under Alvar Fáñez is also defeated between Cuenca & Zorita. Almoravids seemed unstopable, and decided to attack again Valencia, but this confidence is going to be their perdition: Rodrigo Díaz and his ally, Pedro I of Aragón attack the first in Bairén, and find them again unprepared (they tought El Cid was going to wait for them inside the walls of Valencia).
Consequences. Those battles only managed partially to stop the Almoravids: they still defeated Christians again at Uclés (1108, where the heir of Castile, Sancho, also died), and conquered the cities of Consuegra, Cuenca, Ocaña and Hueste. After the death of Rodrigo Díaz (10th July 1099), they attacked again Valencia, besieging the city at least three times. Alfonso VI came to help the city, but only managed to end the battle in Cullera in a draw, so the city had to be abandoned by Christians. Nevertheless, they had spent their best moment, and Toledo remained under Christian hands. The Almoravid domination over Moslem Spain remained until 1145 (only the kingdom of Zaragoza remained independent for a while), but the main threat towards Christian Spain had ended. Almoravid domination was a period of artistical renaisance, but also of religious intolerance: Jews were expelled towards the Christian Kingdoms, and many Mozarabics (Christians who lived at Moslem countries) had to follow them.
(Rodrigo, or Ruy, Diaz, Count of Bivar).
The great popular hero of the chivalrous age of Spain, born at Burgos c. 1040; died at Valencia, 1099. He was given the title of seid or cid (lord, chief) by the moors and that of campeador (champion) by his admiring countrymen. Tradition and legend have cast a deep shadow over the history of this brave knight, to such an extent that his very existence has been questioned; there is however, no reason to doubt his existence. We must, at the same time regard him as a dual personality, and distinguish between the historical Cid and the legendary Cid. History paints him as a free booter, an unprincipled adventurer, who battled with equal vigour against Christians and Moors; who, to further his own ends, would as soon destroy a Christian church as a Moslem temple; who plundered and slew as much for his own gain as from any patriotic motives. It must be born in mind, however that the facts which discredit him have reached us through hostile Arab historians, and that to do him full justice he should be judged according to the standard of his country in his day. Vastly different indeed is the Cid of romance, legend, and ballad, wherein he is pictured as the tender, loving husband and father; the gentle courageous soldier; the noble, generous conqueror, unswervingly loyal to his country and his king; the man whose name has been an ever-present inspiration to Spanish patriotism. But whatever may have been the real adventures of El Cid Campeador, his name has come down to us in modern times in connection with a long series of heroic achievements in which he stands out as the central figure of the long struggle of Christian Spain against the Moslem hosts.
Ferdinand I, at his death (1065), had divided his dominions between his three sons, Sancho, Alfonso, and Garcia, and his two daughters, Elvira and Urraca, exacting from them a promise that they would respect his wishes and abide by the division. But Sancho, to whose lot had fallen the Kingdom of Castile, being the eldest, thought that he should have inherited the entire dominions of his father, and he resolved to repudiate his promise, claiming that it had been forced from him. Stronger, braver, and craftier than his brothers, he cherished the idea of despoiling them and his sisters of their possessions, and becoming the sole successor of his father.
At this time, Rodrigo Diaz was quite young, and Sancho, out of gratitude for the services of Rodrigo's father to the State, had retained his son at the court and looked after his education, especially his military training. Rodrigo later rendered such distinguished services in the war in which Sancho became involved with Aragon that he was made alferez (standard-bearer or commander-in-chief) of the king's troops. After ending this war with Aragon, Sancho turned his attention to his plan of despoiling his brothers and sisters (c. 1070). He succeeded in adding to his dominion Leon and Galicia, the portions of his brothers, but not until in each instance Rodrigo had come to his rescue and turned apparent defeat into victory. The city of Toro, the domain of his sister Elvira, was taken without trouble. He then laid siege to the city of Zamora, the portion of his sister Urraca, and there met his fate, being treacherously slain before the gates of the city by one of Urraca's soldiers (1072). Learning this, Alfonso who had been exiled to the Moorish city of Toledo, set out in haste to claim the dominions of his brother, and succeeded him on the throne as Alfonso VI, though not without opposition, from his brother Garcia, in Galicia, and especially in Castile, the inhabitants of which objected to a Leonese king. The story is told, though not on the best historical authority, that the Castilians refused Alfonso their allegiance until he had sworn that he had no hand in his brother's death, and that, as none of the nobles was willing to administer the oath for fear of offending him, Rodrigo did so at Santa Gadea before the assembled nobility. If this be true, it would account in a great measure for the ill-will Alfonso bore Rodrigo, and for his subsequent treatment of him. He did not at first show his hatred, but tried to conciliate Rodrigo and the Castilians by bestowing upon him his niece Jimena in marriage (1074). It was not long, however, before he had an opportunity to satisfy his animosity. Rodrigo having been sent by Alfonso to collect tribute from the king of Seville, Alfonso's vassal, he was accused on his return, by his enemies of having retained a part of it. Whereupon, Alfonso, giving free rein to his hatred, banished him from his dominions (1076). Rodrigo then began his career as a soldier of fortune, which has furnished themes to Spanish poets of early modern times, and which, idealized by tradition and legend, has made of him the champion of Christian Spain against her Moorish invaders. During this period of his career, he offered his services and those of his followers first to one petty ruler and then another, and often fought on his own account, warring indifferently against Christians and Moors, always with distinguished success, and incidentally rising to great power and influence. But in time of necessity his assistance was sought by Alfonso, and in the midst of career of conquest he hastened to the latter's support when he was hard pressed by Yusuf, the founder of Morocco. Through some mistake or misunderstanding, however, he failed to join the king, who listening to the complaints and accusations of the Cid's enemies, took from him all of his possessions, imprisoned his wife and children, and again banished him for his dominions. Disgraced and plundered, the Cid resumed his military operations. Upon his return from one of his campaigns, hearing that the moors had driven the Christians from Valencia and taken possession of the city, he determined to recapture it from them and become lord of that capital. This he did (1094) after a terrible siege. He spent the remainder of his days there. His two daughters were married to the Infante of Navarre and the Count of Barcelona respectively. His remains were transferred to the monastery of San Pedro de Cardena near Burgos, where they now rest.
The exploits of El Cid form the subject of what is generally considered the oldest monument of Spanish literature. This is an epic poem of a little over 3700 lines as it has reached us (several hundred lines being missing), the author of which, as is not uncommon with works of those days, is unknown. The date of its composition has long been a disputed question. Many critics whose names must be mentioned with respect, among them Dozy and Ticknor, place it at the beginning of the thirteenth century; but today the best opinion places the poem a half-century earlier. Among those who think it was written as early as the middle of twelfth century are many eminent Spanish and foreign scholars, including Sanchez, the first editor of the poem, Capmany, Quintana, Gil y Zarate, Bouterwek, Sismondi, Shlegel, Huber, and Wolf. The learned Amador de los Rios, whose opinion carries great weight, thinks that the famous poem must have been written prior to 1157. Though based upon historical facts, the "Poema del Cid" is to a very large extent legendary. Its theme is twofold, the adventures of the exiled Cid and the mythical marriage of his two daughters to the Counts of Carrion. The first few pages are missing, and what remains opens abruptly with the banishment of the Cid by King Alfonso, and ends with a slight allusion to the hero's death. But the story it tells is not its chief claim to our consideration. The poem deserves to be read for its faithful pictures of the manners and customs of the day it represents. It is written with Homeric simplicity and in the language of the day, the language the Cid himself used, which was slowly divorcing itself from the Latin, but was still only half developed. The versification is rather crude and ill-sustained. The prevailing metre is the Alexandrine or fourteen syllabled verse with a caesural pause after the eighth; but the lines often run into sixteen or even twenty syllables, and sometimes stop at twelve or ten. This however, may be partly due to careless copying.
The adventures of the Cid have furnished material for many dramatic writers, notably to Guillen de Castro, the eminent Valencian poet and dramatist of the early seventeenth century, whose masterpiece, "Las Mocedades del Cid" earned him whatever reputation he enjoyed outside of Spain. This latter work, in turn, furnished the basis for Corneille's brilliant tragedy, "Le Cid", which according to Ticknor, did more than any other drama to determine for two centuries the character of the theatre all over the continent of Europe. Among other works dealing with the life and adventures of the Cid are:
"La Legenda de las Mocedades de Rodrigo", or "La Crónica Rimada", as it is sometimes called. This work has been thought to be even older than the "Poema del Cid" by some critics, among them so eminent authority as Amador de los Ríos.
"La Crónica General ó Estoria de España", written by Alfonso the Wise.
"La Crónica del Cid", the manuscript of which was found in the very place where the Cid lies buried, the monastery of San Pedro de Cardeña. Its author and the time of its appearance are unknown.
Transcribed by Joe P. Schneider
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume III
Copyright © 1908 by Robert Appleton Company
Online Edition Copyright © 1999 by Kevin Knight
Nihil Obstat, November 1, 1908. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor
Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York
- [S1659] Human Family Project, Mary Slawson, Chair, (Copyright January 2006).
- [S1534] Joseph Smith, Sr. & Lucy Mack Foundation, Mike Kennedy, ((http://www.josephsmithsr.com : 31 Oct 2008)), ). (Reliability: 2).
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