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Edward I "Longshanks" Plantagenet, King of England

Edward I "Longshanks" Plantagenet, King of England[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12]

Male 1239 - 1307  (68 years)  Submit Photo / DocumentSubmit Photo / Document

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  • Name Edward I "Longshanks" Plantagenet  [13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23
    Suffix King of England 
    Nickname Longshanks 
    Born 16 Jun 1239  Westminster Palace, Westminster, , Greater London, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [14, 15, 16, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24
    Alt. Birth 17 Jun 1239  , Westminster, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Christened 22 Jun 1239  , Westminster, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Biography
    • Edward I, called Longshanks (1239-1307), king of England (1272-1307), Lord of Gascony, of the house of Plantagenet. He was born in Westminster on June 17, 1239, the eldest son of King Henry III, and at 15 married Eleanor of Castile. In the struggles of the barons against the crown for constitutional and ecclesiastical reforms, Edward took a vacillating course. When warfare broke out between the crown and the nobility, Edward fought on the side of the king, winning the decisive battle of Evesham in 1265. Five years later he left England to join the Seventh Crusade.
          Following his father's death in 1272, and while he was still abroad,  Edward was recognized as king by the English barons; in 1273, on his return to England, he was crowned.
         The first years of Edward's reign were a period of the consolidation of his power. He suppressed corruption in the administration of justice, restricted the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts to church  affairs, and eliminated the papacy's overlordship over England.  On the refusal of Llewelyn ab Gruffydd (died 1282), ruler of Wales, to submit to the English crown, Edward began the military conflict that resulted, in 1284, in the annexation of Llewelyn's principality to the English crown. In 1290 Edward expelled all Jews from England. War between England and France broke out in 1293 as a result of the efforts of France to curb Edward's power in Gascony. Edward lost Gascony in 1293 and did not again come into possession of the duchy until 1303. About the same year in which he lost Gascony, the Welsh rose in rebellion.
          Greater than either of these problems was the disaffection of the people of Scotland. In agreeing to arbitrate among the claimants to the Scottish throne, Edward, in 1291, had exacted as a prior condition the recognition by all concerned of his overlordship of Scotland. The Scots later repudiated him and made an alliance with France against England. To meet the critical situations in Wales and Scotland, Edward summoned a parliament, called the Model Parliament by historians because it was a representative body and in that respect was the forerunner of all future parliaments. Assured by Parliament of support at home, Edward took the field and suppressed the Welsh insurrection. In 1296, after invading and conquering Scotland, he declared himself king of that realm. In 1298 he again invaded Scotland to suppress the revolt led by Sir William Wallace. In winning the Battle of Falkirk in 1298, Edward achieved the greatest military triumph of his career, but he failed to crush Scottish opposition.
         The conquest of Scotland became the ruling passion of his life. He was, however, compelled by the nobles, clergy, and commons to desist in his attempts to raise by arbitrary taxes the funds he needed for campaigns. In 1299 Edward made peace with France and married Margaret, sister of King Philip III of France. Thus freed of war, he again undertook the conquest of Scotland in 1303. Wallace was captured and executed in 1305. No sooner  had Edward established his government in Scotland, however, than a new revolt broke out and culminated in the coronation of Robert Bruce as king of Scotland.  In 1307 Edward set out for the third time to subdue the Scots, but he died en route near Carlisle on July 7, 1307.  He also had a daughter with Eleanor of Castile that died young.
    Military Service 1298  Battlefield, Falkirk, Stirling, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location  [25
    Name Edward  [25
    Name Edward I "Longshanks"  [25
    Name Edward I, "Longshanks" England 
    Name Longshanks 
    Name Plantagenet 
    Died 7 Jul 1307  Burgh by Sands, , Cumberland, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 26
    Cause: Dysentery. 
    Buried 28 Oct 1307  Westminster Abbey, Westminster, , Greater London, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Headstones Submit Headstone Photo Submit Headstone Photo 
    Person ID I3386  Full Tree
    Last Modified 27 Sep 2013 

    Father Henry III Plantagenet, King of England
              b. 1 Oct 1207, Winchester Castle, Winchester, Hampshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location
              d. 16 Nov 1272, Westminster Palace, Westminster, , Greater London, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 65 years) 
    Mother Eleonore Bérenger, Queen of England
              b. Abt 1223, of, Aix-en-Provence, Bouches-du-Rhône, France Find all individuals with events at this location
              d. 24 Jun 1291, Amesbury, , Wiltshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 68 years) 
    Married 14 Jan 1236  Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [15, 20, 21, 23, 27, 28, 29
    • Child Bride at 13
    Family ID F1412  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Wife 1 Princess Leonor de Castile-León, Queen of England
              b. 1244, of, Burgos, Burgos, Spain Find all individuals with events at this location
              d. 29 Nov 1290, , Herdeby, Lincoln, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 46 years) 
    Married 18 Oct 1254  Burgos, Segovia, Castile, Spain Find all individuals with events at this location  [15, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 25, 30, 31, 32
    • Henry III ran afoul of his barons (again) when he requested a large amount of money to aid him in putting down Gaston de Béarn's 2nd rebellion in Gascony, saying that de Béarn's ally St. Ferdinand III King of Castile was going to invade Gascony, but just as he said this, Simon de Montfort returned to England & told the barons that Henry was actually negotiating with the St. Ferdinand III to marry his daughter Eleanor to Henry's son Crown Prince Edward "Longshanks" (de Montfort's commetns were true).
    Children 
    +1. Eleanor Plantagenet, Princess of England
              b. 1264, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location
              d. 1298, Gent, Flandre-Orientale, Belgium, Netherlands Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 34 years)
     2. Joan Plantagenet, Princess of England
              b. 1265, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location
              bur. 7 Sep 1265, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 0 years)
     3. John Plantagenet, Prince of England
              b. 10 Jul 1266, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location
              d. 1 Aug 1272, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 6 years)
     4. Henry Plantagenet, Prince of England
              b. 1267-1268, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location
              d. Abt 14 Oct 1274, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 6 years)
     5. Julian Plantagenet, Princess of England
              b. 1271, Acre, Hazafon, Israel, Palestine Find all individuals with events at this location
              d. 1271, Acre, Hazafon, Israel, Palestine Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 0 years)
    +6. Joanne Plantagenet, Countess of Hertford
              b. 1272, Acre, Hazafon, Israel, Palestine Find all individuals with events at this location
              d. 23 Apr 1307, Clare, , Suffolk, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 35 years)
     7. Alphonso Plantagenet, Earl of Chester
              b. 24 Nov 1273, Bayonne, , Aquitaine, France Find all individuals with events at this location
              d. 19 Aug 1284, Bayonne, , Aquitaine, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 10 years)
     8. Isabel Plantagenet, Princess of England
              b. Abt 1274, of Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location
              d. Yes, date unknown
    +9. Margaret Plantagenet, Princess of England
              b. 11 Sep 1275, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location
              d. 1318  (Age 42 years)
     10. Berengaria Plantagenet, Princess of England
              b. 1276, Kennington, Radley, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location
              d. Abt 1277-1279, Kennington, Radley, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 3 years)
     11. Mary Plantagenet, Princess of England
              b. 11 Mar 1278, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location
              d. Bef 22 Jul 1332, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 54 years)
     12. Alice Plantagenet, Princess of England
              b. 12 Mar 1279, Palace, Woodstock, Oxford, England Find all individuals with events at this location
              d. 1291, Palace, Woodstock, Oxford, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 11 years)
    +13. Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England
              b. 7 Aug 1282, Rhuddlan Castle, St. Asaph, Flintshire, Wales Find all individuals with events at this location
              d. 5 May 1316, Quendon, , Essex, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 33 years)
    +14. Edward II Plantagenet, King of England
              b. 25 Apr 1284, Caernarvon Castle, Caernarvon, Caernarvonshire, Wales Find all individuals with events at this location
              d. 21 Sep 1327, Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucester, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 43 years)
     15. Beatrice Plantagenet, Princess of England
              b. 1286, Toulouse, Languedoc, Haute-Garonne, France Find all individuals with events at this location
              d. Yes, date unknown
     16. Blanche Plantagenet, Princess of England
              b. 1290, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location
              d. Yes, date unknown
    Last Modified 10 Apr 2013 
    Family ID F1409  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Wife 2 Marguerite Capet, Princess of France
              b. 1279, Paris, , Île-de-France, France Find all individuals with events at this location
              d. 14 Feb 1317, Marlborough Castle, Marlborough, Wiltshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 38 years) 
    Married 8 Sep 1299  Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [15, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25
    Children 
    +1. Thomas Brotherton, Prince of England
              b. 1 Jun 1300, , Brotherton, Yorkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location
              d. Aug 1338, Bury Abbey, Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 38 years)
    +2. Edmund Plantagenet, Prince of England
              b. 5 Aug 1301, Woodstock, , Oxfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location
              d. 19 Mar 1330, Winchester, , Hampshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 28 years)
     3. Eleonor Plantagenet, Princess of England
              b. 4 May 1306, Winchester, , Hampshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location
              d. 1311  (Age 4 years)
    Last Modified 10 Apr 2013 
    Family ID F1401  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Wife 3 Mrs. Edward I Plantagenet
              b. Abt 1242, of, , , England Find all individuals with events at this location
              d. Yes, date unknown 
    Married Abt 1261  of Castle, St. Briavell's, Gloucester, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [25
    Children 
    +1. Sir. John de Botetourt, Baron
              b. Abt 1262, Castle, St. Briavell's, Gloucester, England Find all individuals with events at this location
              d. 25 Nov 1324  (Age ~ 62 years)
    Last Modified 17 Aug 2010 
    Family ID F17741  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 16 Jun 1239 - Westminster Palace, Westminster, , Greater London, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsAlt. Birth - 17 Jun 1239 - , Westminster, Middlesex, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsChristened - 22 Jun 1239 - , Westminster, Middlesex, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarried - 18 Oct 1254 - Burgos, Segovia, Castile, Spain Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarried - Abt 1261 - of Castle, St. Briavell's, Gloucester, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsChild - Sir. John de Botetourt, Baron - Abt 1262 - Castle, St. Briavell's, Gloucester, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsChild - Eleanor Plantagenet, Princess of England - 1264 - Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsChild - Joan Plantagenet, Princess of England - 1265 - Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsChild - John Plantagenet, Prince of England - 10 Jul 1266 - Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsChild - Henry Plantagenet, Prince of England - 1267-1268 - Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsChild - Alphonso Plantagenet, Earl of Chester - 24 Nov 1273 - Bayonne, , Aquitaine, France Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsChild - Isabel Plantagenet, Princess of England - Abt 1274 - of Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsChild - Margaret Plantagenet, Princess of England - 11 Sep 1275 - Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsChild - Berengaria Plantagenet, Princess of England - 1276 - Kennington, Radley, Berkshire, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsChild - Mary Plantagenet, Princess of England - 11 Mar 1278 - Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsChild - Alice Plantagenet, Princess of England - 12 Mar 1279 - Palace, Woodstock, Oxford, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsChild - Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England - 7 Aug 1282 - Rhuddlan Castle, St. Asaph, Flintshire, Wales Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsChild - Edward II Plantagenet, King of England - 25 Apr 1284 - Caernarvon Castle, Caernarvon, Caernarvonshire, Wales Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsChild - Beatrice Plantagenet, Princess of England - 1286 - Toulouse, Languedoc, Haute-Garonne, France Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsChild - Blanche Plantagenet, Princess of England - 1290 - Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMilitary Service - 1298 - Battlefield, Falkirk, Stirling, Scotland Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarried - 8 Sep 1299 - Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsChild - Thomas Brotherton, Prince of England - 1 Jun 1300 - , Brotherton, Yorkshire, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsChild - Edmund Plantagenet, Prince of England - 5 Aug 1301 - Woodstock, , Oxfordshire, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsChild - Eleonor Plantagenet, Princess of England - 4 May 1306 - Winchester, , Hampshire, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - Cause: Dysentery. - 7 Jul 1307 - Burgh by Sands, , Cumberland, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsBuried - 28 Oct 1307 - Westminster Abbey, Westminster, , Greater London, England Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 

  • Photos
    Henry III
    Edward I

    Heraldry and Misc.
    Count of Gascoigne
    Count of Plain
    King of England

  • Notes 
    • REF: British Monarchy Official Website: Edward I (1272-1307), who succeeded his father, was an able administrator and law maker. He re-established royal power, investigating many of the abuses resulting from weak royal government
      and issuing new laws. Edward was an effective soldier, gaining experience from going on crusade to Egypt and Syria before he became king. In 1276
      Edward invaded Wales where Llewelyn ap Gruffydd, Prince of Wales, had built up considerable power. In a series of campaigns Edward gained control of Wales, building strong castles to secure his conquests. Llewelyn was killed
      and in 1284, the Statute of Wales brought Wales under Edward's rule. In 1301, he created his eldest son, Edward, the first English Prince of Wales. Wanting to unite the country behind him and to raise money for all these campaigns, in 1295 the king called what became known as the 'Model Parliament'. To this he summoned not only the aristocracy and the prelates, but also the knights of
      the shires, burgesses from the towns and junior clergy, thus creating a Parliament in approximately its modern form. From this date onwards, this
      system of representation became the norm. In 1296 Edward invaded Scotland, successfully seizing the king of Scots and the Stone of Scone. However, a guerrilla war broke out and William Wallace, the Scottish leader, defeated the English at Stirling Bridge. Wallace was finally captured and executed in 1305. Edward died in 1307, when he was about to start another campaign against the
      Scots. In 1314 Robert the Bruce, who had become king of Scots in 1306, defeated the English at the Battle of Bannockburn.

      REF: Sharon Kay Penman "Falls the Shadow":  He was on fairly friendly & respectful terms with his uncle, Simon de Montfort, and even initially supported Simon's calls for honoring the Oxford Provisions.  But, after Richard of Cornwall's mediation in the dispute between Edward & his father Henry, Simon had his final break with de Montort in April 1260. In late June 1260, Edward, attempting to alleviate Henry's money crisis, by subterfuge under cover of darkness requested admittance into the New Temple of the Knights Templar in London & robbed the treasuries of the city guilds.  In June 1263 Prince Edward's foreign Flemish troops burned Bristol; the populace rose up & besieged him & his army in the castle. The Bishop of Worcester, Walter de Cantelou placated the townsfolk by taking Edward's pladge to make peace with de Montfort & the barons (Edward had no intention of honoring his pledge). March 1264 Simon's sons Henry & Bran de Montfort trap Prince Edward at Gloucester Castle, but Edward solemnly avows to Henry (they were extremely close, growing up together) that if Henry grants him a truce he will work with King Henry & Richard of Cornwall to arrange a truce & avoid war.  Henry de Montfort was in command, & believed him.  Edward was lying through his teeth. As soon as Henry & Bran de Montfort's army were out of sight, Edward siezed the town & imposed harsh fines & penalties. On April 5 1264 the defeat at Northampton by Edward of Simon's forces (de MOntfort was in London) crippled rebel forces.  Northampton defenses had been allowed to decay in the years previous to de Montfort's occupation there, plus the battle was lost due to the treachery of the Prior at St. Andrew's. After the defeat, Edward allowed his army to have their sport on the town, culminating in utter destruction, rapine, murder, etc. of its inhabitants. Some 80 barons & knights were taken prisoner & the rebel army was gutted.  The defeat touched off a riot in London (since Londoners were very favorable to Simon) on Apr 9, 1264 in which hundreds, mainly Jews, were slain. In May 1264 Edward looted lands of Robert de Ferrers, the Earl of Derby, & after Derby lost Tutbury Castle, he defected from Simon's support.  King Henry meanwhile took Leicester & Nottingham.  Simon & Gilbert de Clare attacked Rochester Castle (which surrendered) & besieged the town when Edward approached London so Simon went back to defend it.  King Henry & Edward were practicing fierce cruelty by chopping off the nads & feet of all common soldiers captured from de Montfort's army.  The Cinque Ports & Dover Castle held fast for Simon, & did not obey Henry & Edward's command for a naval force to attack London.  Thwarted, Edward takes Gilbert de Clare's Tonbridge Castle.  Simon continued to hold London, but was surrounded by Edward & Henry. In May 1264, the Bishop of Chichester tried to convince Henry III to negotiate, but he refused.  The Bishops of London & Worcester (Walter de Cantelou) try to do the same on the eve of the Battle of Lewes; again Henry refuses.  At Lewes, Montfort was outnumbered 2:1; Royalist forces numbered some 10,000.  Montfort introduced a new strategy to warfare; he established a reserve command to be commanded by himself, plus he intoduced the concept of the night march.  He was thought to be miles away by the Royalist forces on the eve of the battle, but he & his army undertook a night march to focre the battle on May 14, 1264.  Henry was utterly taken by surprise, & his garrison lodged at the Priory were in some confusion; however, Edward, who garrisoned his men at Lewes Castle, was able to meet the rebel left flank of greenhorn & untrained Londoners under the command of Nicholas de Segrave.  Edward routed them with no care for the "rules" of war in that he & his knights undertook a pursuit miles away from the battle only to slay every man they could find.  This was thought caused by the Londoner's steadfast support for Monfort and their animosity toward Henry & especially Edward's mother Queen Eleanor (including the London mob's attack on her barge July 1263).  From these beginnings Edward had a lifelong hatred for Londoners.  On the eve of the Battle of Lewes, 14 May 1264, after Henry had refused the entreaty of the Bishops of London & Worcester (Walter de Cantelou) to negotiate, Simon formally renounced all allegiance to Henry, & was followed by his men. including Gilbert de Clare, Hugh le Despenser, Humfrey de Bohun VI "the Younger", John Giffard, Sir John FitzJohn, Nicholas de Segrave, & Robert de Vere.  Clare & Vere had the most to lose of any rebel supporters.  At the battle itself, the left flank of green & hastily trained but no battle-experience Londoners was under the command of Nicholas de Segrave with 2nd an inexperienced John Giffard; the right flank was commanded by Simon's sons Henry & Guy de Montfort (Bran still being held in captivity at Windsor Castle by Henry) with 2nd Humphrey de Bohun VI "the Younger", the center column was commanded by Gilbert de Clare, 2nded by Sir John FitzJohn, with Simon himself commanding the new reserve force 2nded by Hugh le Despenser.  For the Royalists, Henry commanded the center column, Richard of Cornwall commanded the left flank, & Edward commanded the vanguard.  Royalist forces outnumbered the rebels by some 2:1 with some 10,000 men.  Henry's force was augmented by a Scots force sent by his son in law Alexander III the Glorious, King of Scotland.  With Edward were Dafydd ap Gruffydd, Hugh le Bigod, Henry Plantagenet of Almaine, Richard of Cornwall's son (& Edward's cousin & Simon's nephew), & John de Warenne.  At the time of the battle, Simon was thought to be miles away, & still unable to ride a horse due to his broken leg. After Edward had absented himself from the field so long (carrying out his vengeance on the Londoners) Simon attacked & obliterated King Henry's force. Henry fled to the Priory. Richard of Cornwall was captured by Gilbert de Clare. When Edward & his men found out, Edward was urged to flee to Pevensey Castle & from there toward France.  Edward refused to abandon his father, but the de Lusignans fled the battle, as did John de Warenne, Hugh le Bigod, Dafydd ap Gruddydd & over 300 knights. Only Edward's cousin Henry of Almaine (Richard of Cornwall's son) & Edwards household knights remained with him. Edward got through John FitzJohn's surrounding encampment to his father in the priory, Simon then offered a 12 hour truce & accepted their surrender the following morning.  Lewes resulted in 2700 known dead (one of every five men).  Under the Mise of Lewes, the Oxford Provisions were again reinstated as the law of the land, with an arbitration commission.  Under no circumstances could Henry appoint aliens onto his council.  Henry's extravagent spending was also to be brought under control & he to live within his means & pay off his enormous debts.  A full amnesty was proclaimed for all rebels.  No ransoms were to be paid for men captured at Lewes nor earlier at Northampton.  Edward & Henry of Almaine surrendered themselves as hostages for their fathers' good faith.  Edward was confined at Wallingford Castle with Richard of Cornwall.  King Henry was lodged securely at the palace of the Bishop of London, In June 1264, Simon called a Parliament, one that included knights & town officials.  The effect of Lewes that while Henry was still King, Simon had command of the realm.  He also called for the terms of the Chivalric code to cover not only knights, but also commoners & Jews.  In October 1264, the Pope (who hated Simon & the English Lords who had refused to succor his (the Pope's) abortive plans for Sicily) formally excommunicated Simon, his sons Henry, Bran & Guy, Gilbert de Clare, Hugh le Despenser, the Mayor of London Thomas FitzThomas, & many of their supporters.  The Bishops of Worcester, London & Winchester refused to publish the sentence of anathema; the Pope laid England under Interdict Oct 21 1264, but the English clergy continued to support Simon & services & rites of the Church continued to be performed. After the great victory, Simon's problems with governing began to mount.  He wielded the King's authority without the right, & many began to question his motives for power.  Also, an economic crises mounted as the sailors of the Cinque Ports had siezed all shipping in the Channel. In November 1264, kinsmen of the Earl of Hereford, Humphrey de Bohun V (Humphrey de Bohun VI was a staunch Montfort supporter) waged an attack on Wallingford Castle to free Edward.  Guy de Montfort, Edward's cousin & Simon's son, cooly told Edward to have the besiegers call off the attack or he (Guy) would order Edward hurled at them in the Castle mangonel. Such was the bad blood between them that Edward did as ordered. At the Battle of Kenilworth, Edward borrowed from Simon's never before heard of tactics & underwent & forced night march of 30 miles & surprised Bran de Montfort outside Kenilworth Castle (Bran had foolishly encamped outside, rather than in, the castle). Bran had a large army & cache of supplies gathered for the relief of Simon, who had been trapped in Wales for a month; however, Bran had been lax in speedily coming to his father's rescue & in enforcing military discipline. Edward's forces completely overwhelmed Bran's army; Edward captured so many horses he was able to mount every man in his army.  At Evesham (4 Aug 1265) Edward flew false colors of Robert de Vere of Oxford (captured at Kenilworth) & of Bran and entrapped Simon there. It was less a battle than a slaughter; Edward allowed his men to mutilate the dead, etc.

      In the Barons war 1264-67 he defeated the Barons at Evesham (1265) as King
      he is noted for encouraging Parliamentary institutions at the expence of
      feaudalism and for subdueing Wales on which he imposed the English system of administration. This was after his first campaign in Wales when he was still prince.  He & his father Henry III were led an army into Gwynedd & were defeated at Deganwy Castle August 1257 leaving all of Wales (and all of Prince Edward's Welsh lands) in the control of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd. Edward & Henry's forces were defeated by Llywelyn in less than a month. He later tried to assert his authority over Scotland and died while on his way to fight Robert Bruce.

      Edward I
      Edward I (1272-1307), who succeeded his father, was an able administrator and law-maker. He re-established royal power, investigating many of the abuses resulting from weak royal government and issuing new laws. Edward was an effective soldier, gaining experience from going on crusade to Syria before he became king. In 1277 Edward invaded Wales where Llewelyn ap Gruffydd, prince of Wales, had built up considerable power. In a series of campaigns Edward gained control of Wales, building strong castles to secure his conquests. Llewelyn was subdued before his death, by the 1277 treaty of Conway. In 1284, the Statute of Wales brought Wales under Edward's rule. In 1301, he created his eldest surviving son, Edward, the first English Prince of Wales.
      Wanting to unite the country behind him and to raise money for his campaigns in Wales and Scotland (including another war in France in 1293), in 1295 the king called what became known as the 'Model Parliament'. To this he summoned not only the aristocracy, bishops and abbots, but also the knights of the shires, burgesses from the towns and junior clergy. (Although resembling Parliament in approximately its modern form, for most of the middle ages a parliament meant primarily the king and the lords, with the commons meeting separately. Under pressures of war, and the subsequent need for extraordinary taxation, parliament became a regular feature of royal rule, and this system of representation subsequently became more usual.)

      In 1296 Edward invaded Scotland, successfully seizing the Stone of Scone; the king John Balliol abdicated and surrendered to Edward. However, a guerrilla war broke out and William Wallace, the Scottish leader, defeated the English at Stirling Bridge in 1297. Wallace was finally captured and executed in 1305. Edward died in 1307, when he was about to start another campaign against the Scots and their leader, Robert the Bruce.
      Noted For Encouraging Parliamentary Institutions At The Expence Of Feudalism.
      Subdued Wales On Which He Imposed The English System Of Administration.
      Had William Wallace, Scottish Patriot, Killed Acc To Legend
      !#EWH, Langer p211, 214; (Longshanks; the English Justinian); He observed his
      motto, Pactum serva (Keep troth);
      !#552-v2-T12;
      !Chronicles of the Crusades; Joinville and Villehardouin; As Prince Edward,
      arrived at Tunis 1270, just as French were leaving, following the death of King
      Louis IX. [33]
    • (Medical):Had a drooping left eyelid

  • Reference  Bryan S. Larson. "Edward I "Longshanks" Plantagenet, King of England". Our Family Histories. https://www.ourfamilyhistories.org/getperson.php?personID=I3386&tree=00 (accessed September 19, 2019).

  • Sources 
    1. [S2401] Jerusalem Kings - MEFHD.

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    22. [S1200] Frederick Lewis Weis. Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America bef 1760. 7th ed Genealogical Publishing, Baltimore 1992 , , Repository: J.H. Garner Same ref source as earlier ed, "Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists who Came to New England 1623-1650" ed 1-6 good to very good, line 1 pp 1-4.

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    26. [S1262] Sharon Kay Penman. The Reckoning. Ballantine Books, New York, 1991 ,.

    27. [S1224] David Faris. Plantagenet Ancestry of 17th Century Colonists. Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 1996 , , Repository: J.H. Garner good to very good, 1st ed, pp 31-32 "Botreaux".

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    29. [S1213] Alison Weir. Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy. rev. ed, Pimlico Random House, London 1989, 1996 , , Repository: J.H. Garner, p 69.

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    33. [S145] Nicholl, William N., Jr.. "Genealogical Research of William N. Nicholl, Jr.". E-Mail research data, n.d., William N. Nicholl, Jr., , 4010 W. 68th Terrace, Prairie Village, KS 66208.


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